Dear Distinguished Delegates,
Welcome to this year’s Rotaract Global Model United Nations hosted in Pokhara, Nepal. We are very enthusiastic to have you involved in RGMUN Nepal and the wonderful opportunity that both MUN and Rotaract can bring. This year RGMUN is very proud to have two editions of our conference this year, and looks forward to inviting you to the many future editions to come.
The United Nations Security Council has always been the most important forum for international peace and security since the end of World War Two. In the over 70 years since, the UNSC has been fighting at every turn for resolution to conflicts, and prosperity for all. In this way you will be learning how such resolutions come to be, and how that prosperity can be brought. It is a difficult committee to be a part of, but a rewarding one. You will be among merely 15 of your peers discussing the issues at hand, and bringing forward solutions that both benefit your country and the world at large.
We as chairs are here to make sure that your experience as a delegate is smooth and productive! If you ever have questions then please do come to us, and we are also there to help guide you through the topic too. Model United Nations can be difficult but we are certain that if you read up on the rules of procedure, read this study guide, research your topic and country well, then you should have no issues during the debate!
We wish you the best of luck and look forward to seeing you in Nepal!
Philippe Lefevre and Kripa Shrestha
Introduction to the Committee
The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful forum in the land being the only committee that can accept legally binding resolutions. Consisting of 5 permanent members and 10 non-permanent members who are elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the position. Featured below is a map of the current makeup of the United Nations Security Council. The 5 permanent members are the United Kingdom, United States, French Republic, Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China. The non-permanent members are Belgium, Côte d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Germany, Indonesia, Kuwait, Peru, Poland and South Africa.
The United Nations Security Council is such a special committee because it is the only committee that can enforce legally binding resolutions that UN Member States must abide by. This is laid out in Chapter V of the UN Charter (which you can read here). The powers of the Security Council are ultimately open for interpretation, but always within the principles of the United Nations. Furthermore, specific measures such as sanctions are highlighted as a primary method of enforcement. Nevertheless, it is mostly through unbinding resolutions that the UNSC gets its work done, as a resolution by it is often listened to in the international community.
The next interesting peculiarity of the UNSC is the voting. WIth 15 members, the UNSC requires 9 Votes in favour of a resolution for it to pass (whereas a normal committee would require only half +1 of the votes in favour). This is coupled with the need for no permanent members to vote against, meaning that each of the permanent members has what is called a “Veto”. This means that a delicate balance between the opinions of the permanent members and the non-permanent members is needed. However, we must remember that we are all here to improve the world in some ways, and not be needlessly picky.